A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
at/near the stern
to/towards the stern
superstructure at the stern that forms a fenced in platform
at/near the center of the hull, midway between the bow and stern
transversally across the beam
light, open-sided roofed construction supported by poles and raised amidship to provide passenger protection from the sun
dense material, usually stone, placed low in the hold of a vessel to lower the center of gravity and increase stability
a longitudinal row of rowers (eg. single-banked, double-banked, triple-banked)
(1) transversal timber that provides lateral strength
(2) transversal width of the hull
a wooden pin used to temporarily attach/secure rigging elements
an open vessel, usually small and without decks, intended for use in sheltered water
wooden spar attached to the foot of the sail in order to spread it
a type of square rig where the foot of the sail is attached to a boom. Common on certain Late Bronze Age vessels
for’ard end of the ship from where the strakes begin to curve in towards the post
spar running out from the ship’s stempost, functioning either as a decorative device or to fasten stays
rope attached to the extremities of the yard for trimming/adjusting the angle of the sail depending on the wind
short ropes attached to the sail surface for trussing the sail when furling, or for shortening the surface presented to the wind
transverse partition dividing the craft into compartments. May replace the ribs
the topsides above the deck, usually meant to provide protection from waves and/or attackers. Can be fully or partially planked, made of a lighter material (leather, cloth), or open.
construction with closed sides and top, usually placed at the stern (for the commander) or amidship (for passengers or goods). Generally associated with riverine navigation since it is unsuitable for maritime conditions
a railing atop the sheerstrake or bulwarks, usually defining the upper edge of the side of the vessel
material inserted between members to ensure watertight junctions between the strakes
a small platform or basket-like construction attached to the masthead, used by a lookout, archer or slinger as a vantage point. Can be top mounted or hung on the side.
a beam or a crane projecting from the bow and used for hoisting the anchor clear of the bow after it has surfaced
projection at the bow, placed at the waterline to facilitate the hull’s penetration of the water
pair(s) of loops at the masthead through which pass halyards and lifts
total weight of the equipped vessel, including cargo and crew
horizontal platform of planking extending longitudinally and laterally across all or part of the interior of the hull. Typically constructed of a layer of longitudinal planks fastened to or resting on a series of transverse beams.
double-level, double-banked ship
ship with the crew seated in two files
vertical distance from the lowest point of the hull to the waterline, ie immersed part of the vessel
brushwood, scrapwood, or other loose material laid into the hold to protect the cargo from shifting or water damage, or to protect the ceiling from abrasion.
single-level, double-banked ship with ten oars per side
increase in transverse section of the hull towards the gunwale
inner planking attached to the ribs and serving as support for the cargo
lower edge of the sail, with or without a boom
at/near the bow
superstructure at the bow, forming a fenced-in platform
directionally towards the bow. A crew faces for’ard when on board, but the craft is propelled forward by the oarsmen
transverse timber used to strengthen the hull (cf. rib, spar)
vertical distance from the gunwale to the waterline
to roll up/bundle up the sail and attach it to the yard when it is not in use
long and slender ship conceived primarily for movement under oar-power
a narrow deck running either along the side of the vessel or down the centerline to connect small decks at the ends of the ship. Often used on vessels with open holds or oared ships to allow the sailing crew to move about
the strake immediately next to the keel
longitudinal member fitted along the topmost strake
line used by the artist to close the upper edge of the hull seen in profile
rope used to hoist the yard
heavy rope, normally used for mooring
the crew member steering the vessel. May be an official rank/position.
a compartment under the deck for the cargo
body of the ship. Can be flat, curved, crescent-shaped, spoon-shaped, double-ended.
lightweight, collapsible construction made from wooden frames, open at the front and unroofed, partially covered with oxhide or textiles to provide protection from the elements without obstructing the view forward. Placed at the stern to serve as a command post for the captain. Ceremonial deck furniture. (plural: ikria)
central longitudinal member of the hull. Need not protrude beyond the hull
line employed by the artist to close the lower edge of the hull seen in profile
(1) false keel placed outside of the skin as protection for beaching
(2) longitudinal members attached to the ribs, used to further strengthen the hull
the joining of structural components by wrapping them with several passes of rope or cord.
the side of a vessel or object that is away from the wind
downwind drift of the sailing vessel at right angles to her steered course
horizontal seating arrangement for the crew on a single height over the keel
rope serving to support the yard and the boom
the part of an oar between the blade and the handle. Usually square or cylindrical in section
single pair of deadeyes forming a ring at the masthead to take the halyards
central pole supporting the sail
a fitting attached to the head of the mast and supporting a number of sheaves, slots, or rings for rigging, such as lifts.
summit of the mast
a mortise cut into the top of a keelson or large floor timber, or a mortised wooden block or assembly of blocks mounted on the floor timbers or keelson, into which the tenoned heel of a mast was seated.
vessel designed with a substantial cargo carrying capacity
cavity (typically rectangular) cut into a timber to receive a shaped piece of wood (tenon) or the extremity of another timber to form a joint
long pole with a blade used to propel the vessel
an opening in a vessel’s side through which the looms of oars pass.
device in the form of an eye, often used as a decorative or apotropaic element, usually at the bow.
(1) fixed longitudinal timber running parallel to the vessel with a flotation device used to give additional stability for craft with a narrow beam
(2) support for an oarthole extending beyond the gunwale, permitting the placing of the rower closer to the gunwale while retaining a practical gearing
short, broad-bladed oar used without a thole
a tapered wooden pin driven into a pre-drilled hole to fasten two members or lock a joint.
Pegged mortise-and-tenon joint
an edge-to-edge planking fastening where each joint consists of a free tenon housed into mortises in opposing edges of the seam. The tenon is then locked in place with a wooden peg driven through the tenon and plank.
single-level, double-banked ship with 25 oars per side
the outer lining, or shell, of a hull
the highest and aftermost deck of a ship
left side of the ship when facing forward
small ram-like projection above the ram
a longitudinal centerline timber which has some of the characteristics of a true keel (such as substantially greater dimensions than the adjoining planking) but lacks others (such as a firm attachment to the rest if the hull structure)
angle of stem- and sternpost
for’ard prolongation of the keel and wales beyond the stempost, functioning as an offensive weapon
the main timber of an ancient ram, projecting forward from its envelope of bow planks and timbers to reinforce the head of the ram
transverse timber used to strengthen the hull (cf. frame, spar)
all ropes used to support the mast and raise and maneuver the sail. May be standing if immobile (stays, shrouds, certain lifts), or running if mobile (halyards, lifts, braces, sheets).
longitudinal curvature of the keel
a keel that is curved longitudinally so that it is deeper at its middle than at its ends
wooden blade of variable dimensions, more or less permanently fastened on pivots to the sternpost, in line with the vessel’s axis used to control the direction of a vessel underway.
lengthening joint of two timbers that does not increase the cross-sectional area
an opening in the side of a ship at deck level to allow water to drain off
the longitudinal joint between two timbers or planks
craft whose planking is attached by stitches
any of a number of construction methods in which adjacent planks are fastened together with fiber stitching. The stitching may be continuous along the seam (in the manner of garment sewing), or it may consist of individual ligatures (in the manner of medical sutures).
watertight envelope of backbone and skin forming the vessel
the upper edge of the uppermost continuous strake of exterior planking
longitudinal curvature of the hull
ropes used to maneuver the boom in trimming the sail
a stay that provides transverse support to a mast. It runs from the masthead to the vessel’s side.
ship with the crew seated in a single file (the rowers work either two oars or one over alternative gunwales)
outer planking of the hull
transverse timber used to strengthen the hull (cf. frame, rib)
projection at the bow, approximately at the waterline
large quadratic sail raised transversally from either a yard and boom, or just a yard
a vertical supporting post, either of the deck, or, if forked, of the hogging-truss or unstepped mast
right side of the ship when facing forward
rope used to support the mast longitudinally
large paddle or oar hung over the stern quarter to direct the craft. Contrast with rudder
upright continuation of the keel at the bow, to which the ends of the strakes are attached
aft end of the ship from where the strakes begin to curve in towards the post
upright continuation of the keel at the stern, to which the ends of the strakes are attached
single horizontal plank stretching from bow to stern (or part thereof)
any construction extending above the gunwale level (aftercastle, awning, cabin, forecastle, ikrion, etc.)
a timber assembly or housing that supported a mast or post at deck level
(1) end of a timber shaped to fit into a mortise
(2) small piece of wood fitting into mortise in the strakes so as to join them
a fixed pivot point for an oar, usually a peg or a hook fixed to the side of the vessel (gunwale or the outrigger). The oar may rest either before or abaft of the thole.
a beam that passes completely through the sides of the vessel so that the ends are visible from outboard. Often done in an attempt to fasten the beam securely to the side by notching it over a wale.
transverse member used as a seat
fitted to the steering-oar to permit leverage. Fixed at an angle to the head of the rudder, can be straight or curved
above the deck
single-level, double-banked ship with 15 oars per side
triple-level, double-banked ship with 170 rowers
ship with crew seated in three files
the inward curvature of a vessel’s upper sides as they rose from the point of maximum breadth to the bulwarks. Reduces topside weight and improves stability.
broad thick timber along the ship’s side, approximately midway between the gunwale and the waterline
ship designed to be used as a weapon in itself (ramming)
bindings to stiffen (or hold together if composite) the mast, yard and boom
wooden spar at the head of the sail